The Sverdlov Orphanage
Address: Moscow, Mamontovka Station, Village of Listvyany, Shkolnaya Street
The Sverdlov Orphanage was opened in 1919 in the former summer residence of the match manufacturer I. Dunaev.
The orphanage received many homeless children from Moscow and St. Petersburg who had lost their parents during the Civil War. During the Second World War, the orphanage received children who had been evacuated from besieged Leningrad and the occupied territories. In its early years, the orphanage was mixed, but later it was restricted to boys only.
In the 1920s, the orphanage was considered an exemplar. A delegation featuring, for example, N.K. Krupskaya and Yulius Fuchik visited it.
By 1935, the NKVD Volgostroya took over the orphanage. According to the correspondence of the Detkomissiya (Children’s Committee), the orphanage had an isolator within the Pushkinskoe Hospital. According to a certificate dated February 23, 1944, 11 orphans had tried to escape within two months. They were caught by the police, brought to temporary children’s shelters, and then transferred back to the orphanage.